The Alps (English Alps) are located in central and southern Europe, covering northern Italy, southeastern France, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, southern Germany, and Slovenia. The Alps extend north from the subtropical Mediterranean coast near Nice in France to Lake Geneva and then northeast to Vienna on the Danube.
The Alps are arc-shaped, 1200 kilometers long and 130-260 kilometers wide, with an average elevation of about 3,000 meters and a total area of about 220,000 square kilometers. Among them, 82 peaks exceed 4,000 meters above sea level. The highest peak is Mont Blanc, with an elevation of 4,810 meters, located at the junction of France, Italy and Switzerland.
The Alps are located between the temperate and subtropical latitudes, and become the dividing line between the humid continental climate in the central European temperate zone and the dry summer climate in the southern European subtropical zone. The peak is cold all year round, and the annual average temperature is 2000C at an altitude of 2000 meters. The annual precipitation in mountainous areas is generally 1200 ~ 2000 mm, but it varies from place to place. About 3000 meters above sea level is the maximum precipitation zone. Annual rainfall in high mountain areas exceeds 2500 mm, and valleys in leeward slopes are only 750 mm.
The Alps are Europe's largest mountain range and a huge watershed. Many large rivers in Europe, such as the Danube, Rhine, Po, and Rhone, originate here. The upper reaches of all rivers have the characteristics of typical mountain rivers, with turbulent currents and abundant hydraulic resources.